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Baha'i Descriptive Historia
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Baha’i Faith In Washington DC

Baha’i Faith In Washington DC

Pauline and Joseph Hennan

During the early 1900s, the Knoblochs and Hannens were instrumental in teaching the Baha’i Faith in Washington, DC. The Knobloch Family Memorial Service was held July 7, 2000 at Prospect Hills Cemetery in the Nations Capital to commemorate the family’s service and achievements to advance the faith.

Baha’i Faith Arrives

The Baha’i Faith arrived in the Nations Capital in 1898, brought there by Charlotte Dixon, a white woman, who came to teach the religion she dearly loved, and concentrated her efforts on teaching the faith to African Americans.

Knoblochs and Hannens

During the early 1900s, the Knoblochs and Hannens were instrumental in teaching the Baha’i Faith to African Americans in Washington, DC.

Louis Gregory

“I became a confirmed believer about June, 1909 and thereafter cooperated with the Hannen’s in arranging meetings and trying to give everyone the message.”

Creadell Haley

Creadell Haley

Creadell Haley

Creadell Haley spent several years as a Baha’i pioneer to Venezuela. She had achieved unique status both as a woman, a minority, and as a licensed private pilot. She gave wings to her ambitions which manifested in subsequent accomplishments, and even more noteworthy, because it was during a time when few if any females ventured into the fields of automotive mechanics and piloting aircraft, to which she aspired.  (A Closer Look:  NBR, #4, p.4.)

Pawhuska, Oklahoma

Creadell Haley was born on 4 July 1916 in Pawhuska, Oklahoma. In high school she became fascinated by auto mechanics, stemming from a class she had taken, and upon graduation decided on that field of study as a post-graduate. She soon found that as a young lady she would not easily be accepted as an apprentice into to field of her choice.

True Passion
The difficulties she encountered soon revealed her true passion, wanting to fly, and to learn more about engines and machines. Creadell applied at a local airfield and was accepted into the course. The family had previously moved from Oklahoma to Illinois, and during this time (the late 1930s) Illinois became a mecca for civilian aviation. It was therefore easier for her to arrange for flying lessons than it had been to become a mechanic. She was the only female in the course, and her instructor related that “she was the best of all their students”.
Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC)
In 1941 she was ready to solo for her pilot’s license. However, World War II intervened and all training for civilian pilot licenses were halted when the Army took over the airport. Creadell’s instructor advised her to join the Army. Taking his advice, on 4 Sep 1942, she joined the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC). She was not able to fly, but as a member of the Army Motor Corps her abilities as a mechanic were further honed.  She achieved the rank of “Sergent’.
Education / Flying / Music
After military service, Creadell returned to Illinois, enrolled in Wilberforce University, and also returned to the airfield where she was able to quickly receive her private pilot’s license, thereby, fulfilling her dream. She later left Wilberforce University to enroll in the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music, and later continued her music education at San Jose State University.
Baha'i Faith
It was during her time spent in California that she was introduced to the Baha’i Faith. The record is not clear as to how this came about, nor of her immediate activities. However, what is clear is that she was inspired to represent the faith as a pioneer to Venezuela. Here she would remain until her return to the United States in 1999. She then took up residence at St. Mary’s Court Apartments in the Foggy Bottom section of Washington, DC.
Unique Status
Creadell Haley achieved unique status both as a woman and as a minority. She gave wings to her ambitions which manifested in subsequent accomplishments, and even more noteworthy because is that it took place during a time when few if any females ventured into those fields to which she aspired.

Residence

St. Mary’s Court Apartments that is located at 725 24th Street NW
Washington, DC 20037.  Across from the infamous Watergate Complex.

Residence

Baha'i Prayers for Pioneers

“Thou knowest, O God, and art my witness that I have no desire in my heart save to attain Thy good pleasure, to be confirmed in servitude unto Thee, to consecrate myself in Thy service, to labor in Thy great vineyard and to sacrifice all in Thy path. Thou art the All-Knowing and the All-Seeing. I have no wish save to turn my steps, in my love for Thee, towards the mountains and the deserts to loudly proclaim the advent of Thy Kingdom, and to raise Thy call amidst all men. O God! Open Thou the way for this helpless one, grant Thou the remedy to this ailing one and bestow Thy healing upon this afflicted one. With burning heart and tearful eyes I supplicate Thee at Thy Threshold.”

“O God! I am prepared to endure any ordeal in Thy path and desire with all my heart and soul to meet any hardship.”

“O God! Protect me from tests. Thou knowest full well that I have turned away from all things and freed myself of all thoughts. I have no occupation save mention of Thee and no aspiration save serving Thee.”

‘Abdu’l-Bahá

_________________

References

[1] Report partly adapted from: Foggy Bottom News, June 2000.[2] Creadell Haley, Baha’i Pioneer to Venezuela, National Baha’i Review, No. 4, ‘Time-Clock Our Foreign Goals’, Americas, Baha’i Year 125, April 1968, p. 4.[3] Photo by Terry Randolph.  Capital Yacht Club, Washington, DC, August 2000.

Additional Research Required

Additional research needs to be done in both the Washington DC Baha’i Archives and archived resources locate in The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University in order to develop a fuller history of the activities of the Baha’i Faith in the Nations Capital and of its membership.

First Meeting

Terry Randolph first met Creadell Haley at a Baha’i Fireside hosted by Hazel Neave (longtime Baha’i pioneer to Thailand) at her apartment during an early afternoon in August 2000. Those in attendance: Barbara Eaton-Bond, her husband Richard, Ouida Coley, and several other Baha’is and their guest. Both Hazel and Creadell resided at St. Mary’s Court Apartments.

Background
It was during Terry Randolph’s visit to the United States from the Philippines in June 2000 that he first heard about Creadell Haley. At that time he had taken temporary residence with the Coley family, located at 6402 16th St., NW, Washington, DC, and completing preparations for departure to Asmara, Eritrea in September of that year. This would be the first stop on his Africa Research Development Project that would eventually include travels to eight Africa nations over a four-year period of time.

From Francis Coley he first learned about Creadell Haley, followed by her daughter, Quida, who explained Creadell’s accomplishments and pioneering experience. She said “Creadell would be attending a Baha’i Fireside this afternoon and if you want to meet her you could also attend. Just contact Hazel Neave because it’s being held at her apartment.” He was very much surprised to learn that Hazel Neave, a Baha’i friend, former caretaker of the Washington, DC Baha’i Center, and long time pioneer to Thailand, and whom he had not seen since visiting that country several years earlier, had returned to the United States, and once again resides in Washington, DC. He stated that he would be very happy to meet and talk with Creadell Haley.

Those attending the Fireside that afternoon included Barbara Eaton-Bond, her husband Richard, Ouida Coley, and several other Baha’is and their guests.

Lunch / Interview
Terry invited Creadell to have lunch together with him and his son, Na’il, the next day at the Oriental East Chinese Restaurant located in the Blair Park Shopping Center, 1312 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, and very near the Giant Supermarket.

 The next day, he went to pickup Creadell at her apartment building. Along with his son, the three of them first stopped to take advantage of a beautiful day by walking around the grounds of the Capital Yacht Club, and where several photographs were taken. Creadell had fun playing with Na’il, then about sixteen months old, and afterward they went to the Chinese restaurant for a delicious meal, and also where the interview took place.

Creadell mentioned that much of what she had to say about her life had already been written in an article by a reporter from the Foggy Bottom News. She also mentioned that her memory was then not so clear, and how happy she was to be able to participate in local Baha’i activities.

The newspaper article mentioned above, together with information acquired during the interview, form the bases for this report.

Passing
Terry Randolph departed Washington, DC for Eritrea in September 2000, and made a brief return in November of that year. He then learned the sad news that Creadell Haley passed away on 2 November 2000 after suffering a brain hemorrhage.
Graveside Prayers
Terry Randolph along with his son, Na’il, on 17 November visited the gravesite of Creadell Haley to pray for the beloved departed.
In Memory
A financial contribution was made by Terry Randolph in memory of Creadell Haley to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Eritrea on 19 November 2000.

Burial

Creadell Haley, Rank, Sargent, United States Army, was interred 8 November 2000 at Quantico National Memorial Cemetery, 18424 Joplin Road (Route 619)
Triangle, Virginia 22172. Burial Site: Section No. 5, Grave No. 258.

Burial

Na’il Randolph

Helen Webb Harris

Helen Webb Harris

Helen Webb Harris

Concern for human dignity and the abolition of prejudice prompted Helen Harris to investigate the teachings of the Baha’i Faith. She became a member of that faith in 1952, worked tirelessly to support its teachings, and served as secretary of the local Baha’i administrative body in Washington, DC for several years.

Helen Webb Harris

Helen Webb Harris was an educator, sports enthusiast, a person of intense energy, many creative interests, and varied pursuits. Her dignity, charm and abilities influenced persons in many walks of life. Former students acknowledge her as a foremost educator and deeply cherish their memories of her.

Birth
Born in Washington, DC on August 15, 1899, she was one of five children of Mr. and Mrs, Elias Webb. Her warm family life and the high aspirations of her parents and teachers were a strong influence on her life, and inspiration for high achievement.
Background
Helen Harris earned a Bachelor’s Degree in English and History at Howard University, and a Masters in Drama at Catholic University, Her deep concern for black history and her writing talent resulted in several literary works. Among them were two plays, one, ‘Frederick Douglas’, and the other was ‘Genifred, Daughter of Toussant l’Ouverture’. Copies of these works are in the Mooreland-Spingarn Collection, Howard University Library.
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority
Her desire to motivate and increase opportunities for young women led her to join the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority and to support its programs as a lifetime member.
Baha'i Faith
Concern for human dignity and the abolition of prejudice prompted Helen Harris to investigate the teachings of the Baha’i Faith. She became a member of that faith in 1952, worked tirelessly to support its teachings, and served as secretary of the local Baha’i administrative body in Washington, DC for several years.

Helen Harris gives a presentation at the dedication of the Washington, DC Baha’i Center (1967).  Background (L/R): Harvey Weiner, from the Baha’i community of Alexandria,Virginia; Dr. Sarah Martin Pereira and Victor Porlier, both members of the Washington, DC Baha’i community, and both then served on its Local Spiritual Assembly.

Residence
Helen Harris last resided at 3900 16th St., NW, Apt. 432 (several blocks south of the Baha’i Center). She had previously moved from 79 R St., NW, 2001, after selling the home she had shared with her husband, Dr. Webb, a dentist, prior to his passing. This new place was much closer to where her children resided, making it easier for them to frequently visit her.

Residence: Crestwood Apartments, A432

Previous Residence

Helen Harris Previous Residence

Rememberance

During 1965, Terry Randolph had occasion to visit Helen Harris in her home at 79 R St., NW, 2001, and much later after she moved to the new location at 3900 16th St NW, 20011. She and her husband for many years held residence near Howard University, in the Shaw neighborhood, an area of DC then still populated mostly by an urban black middle and upper class elite, but at that time (1967) in noticeable decline. It’s also where early on (pre-1960s) it was an area in which several members of the Baha’i community resided, and became a focal point of Baha’i activity prior to the Charles Mason Remey controversy.

Baha'i Faith in the Nations Capital
Additional Research Required
Additional research needs to be done in both the Washington DC Baha’i Archives and archived resources locate in The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University in order to develop a fuller history of the activities of the Baha’i Faith in the Nations Capital and of its membership.

Note: Dean Evans E. Crawford always facilitated Baha’i requests to host various activities at Rankin Chapel due primarily to the faith’s long-standing history with Howard University.  The son of the Founder of the Baha’i Faith, Abdu’l-Baha’i, in 1912 spoke to an assemblage in that same Chapel, some believers in the early 1900s were firmly established as educators at that institution of learning, others had graduated with distinction, and many persons of note during that period had developed an affinity for the Baha’i Faith due primarily to its teachings on the oneness of humanity and the open affirmation of its members supporting ‘Race Amity’.

 

Recreational Sports

Recreational sports were also of great interest, and she became a foundering member of the Wake Robin Golf Club, the first such club for black women in the Washington, DC area, and reigned as a major winner of golf trophies.  Helen is seen in the background image above, left side, first lady in the middle row.

Wake-Robin Golf Club

Helen Webb Harris founded the Wake-Robin Golf Club in 1937; it is the United States’s oldest registered African-American women’s golf club.  The first meeting of the club was held at her house with thirteen women attending. The club was named after the Wake-Robin wildflower.  Harris was the club’s first president, and under her leadership the club joined the United Golf Association and the Eastern Golf Association.  In 1938 the club drafted and sent a petition to Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes seeking to desegregate the public courses of the District of Columbia. In response Ickes approved the construction of a nine-hole golf course on the site of an abandoned trash dump, called Langston Golf Course, which opened in 1939.  The Wake-Robin Golf Club and the Royal Golf Club continued to pressure Secretary Ickes, and he issued an order in 1941 opening public courses to all.  In 1947 Harris was elected as the first female president of the Eastern Golf Association; she was president for two terms.  The Wake-Robin Golf Club was part of the movement to force the Professional Golfers Association to drop its “White-only” rule for eligibility, which it did in 1961.

History of Wake-Robin

References

 

  1. “African American Golfer’s Digest – News, Information & Activities in the ‘Soulful’ World of Golf”.
  1. “The Wake Robin Golf Club founded | African American Registry”. Aaregistry.org. 1936-08-06. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
  1. Marvin P. Dawkins; Graham Charles Kinloch (1 January 2000). African American Golfers During the Jim Crow Era. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-0-275-95940-1.
  1. “The African American Experience”. Testaae.greenwood.com. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
  1. M. Mikell Johnson Ph. D. (2010). Heroines of African American Golf. Trafford Publishing. pp. 1913–. ISBN 978-1-4269-3419-3.

Publication: The African American Woman Golfer: Her Legacy. By M. Mikell Johnson

Categories: African-American women; Civil rights activists

African American Registry
On Thursday, 1936-08-06, the Wake Robin Golf Club of Washington, D. C., was formed. This was one of the first all-Black Women Golf Clubs in America.

 

 

Visit their website for more information:

African American Registry

Memories and Tributes

Names of Baha’i listed on the ‘Program of Memories and Tributes’ are: Anita Chapman, Euretta Adair, Theodies Washington, Tahmineh Parsons (all from Washington, DC); Clarence Rishworth, and Evander Gilmer (Maryland); Shakowfeh Najafabadi (?).

Trustees Baha’i Assembly Washington DC

Trustees Baha’i Assembly Washington DC

Howard University Class, ca. 1900. Library of Congress. Unrelated to below content.

Trustees of the Baha’i Assembly of Washington, DC, Early 1900s

The documents are in two-parts for clarity.  They lists four people who possibly were Trustees of the Baha’i Assembly of Washington, perhaps the first officially registered organisation of the Baha’i Faith in the Nations Capital.  These scanned images are of xeroxed copies made from original microfilm at the Washington, D.C. Public Library, the original copies were done by Vivian Aston, a local community activist, and contain no date or reference.  She discovered them by accident as she researched the history of Woodlawn Cemetery, a personal project undertaken to save the cemetery from destruction, the place of internment of many prominent African Americans.  Ms. Aston had copied them intending to give them to Frances Coley, a local Baha’i, and in whose home she was an occasional guest.  When Terry Randolph arrived in Washington from East Asia in the Summer of 2000 to spend time researching local Baha’i history and to make preparations to embark on an Africa Development Project.  He had contacted Francis Coley to inform her of his intended and she immediately referred him to Vivian Aston.  It is from her the following documents were acquired, and in turn led to additional information.  Time did not permit a more detailed research into the early beginnings of the Baha’i Faith in the Nations Capital, and that presented is considered only as a ‘teaser’ to encourage others to become involved in an exciting undertaking.

On the documents provided by Ms Aston, the following individuals are listed as Trustees of the Baha’i Assembly of Washington:

Mrs. J. F. Bundy

Annie Bundy

James F. Bundy (b. 1862, d. 1914), Lawyer and Educator. Interred at Woodlawn Cemetery.

Mrs. Mattie (Kemp or Kent?)

*Click Images to enlarge

Background

LSA Trustees (The Bundy’s-Sec. D, p50)a.jpg and LSA Trustees (The Bundy’s-Sec. D, p50)b.jpg. My personal archive image reference.

The identity numbers in the right hand column remain unknown, and the same for the last person (4.) listed on the second document, if she was also a ‘Trustee’ or not.

Harriet Bundy — Not yet established that she was a member of the Baha’i community.

Residence: 1315 thirtyth St., NW (Georgetown address). Born: March (?) 1874, Died: 17 Feb 1924 (at home), Age: 50 Yrs. & 11 Mos. Buried: 20 Feb 1924, Woodlawn Cemetery. Widowed, resident of Washington for 7 years. Husband: Willis Bundy.

Death Certificate
Father: William Terrell (Culpepper, VA); Mother: Violet Holmes (Culpepper, VA). Information furnished by: Daughter/Emily Jones,            Fairmount Heights, MD. Record Number: Z83346/Certificate Of Death, District of Columbia/Issued: 28 July 2000.

Second Record (source unknown): BUNDY, Harriet, 1850-1924: Aunt Matilda Johnson, daughter to William and Violet Terrell; P. 36. Perhaps Aunt Matilda Johnson is the person giving information.

Coralie Franklin Cook, a member of the Baha’i Faith in Washington, DC, was the wife of George William Cook.  Its not known if he was also a member of the faith.

Reference: Morrison, Gayle. To Move The World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America, p.140. ISBN-13:978-0877431886.

Reference: Cookman Institute Publication, p.287

Note:

When I first met Vivian Aston she was deeply commited to saving Woodlawn Cemetery from blight and ultimate destruction, a project she had worked on for several years.  Francis Coley recommended I contact her because it seemed possible that she had information about the early beginnings of the Baha’i Faith in the Nations Capital.  She spends an enormous amount of time doing research at the Martin Luther King Library, her primary source for information about Woodlawn. Though not of the Baha’i Faith, being of the Christian faith, she was deeply impressed by it’s principles of the faith.  Through her research she happened upon information she was certain pertained to the early formation of a Baha’i institution in Washington, DC, information that related not only to the background and social status of members of the Faith during the early 1900s, and some of prominence were buried at Woodlawn Cemetery.

At some future date addition information will be provided to provide a more clear understanding of details relating to the early beginnings of the Baha’i Faith in the Nations Capital.  Meanwhile see:  Baha’i Faith In Washington DC

Lincoln Memorial Cemetery

“Established in 1929, Lincoln Memorial Cemetery in Suitland, MD has rolling hills lined with beautiful trees, and is the resting place of many prestigious African Americans, some born as long ago as 1863. Lincoln memorial Cemetery offers traditional ground burials, cremation, mausoleums, and lawn crypts.”
____________________

Lot Owners: Della Bundy Turner and Delilia [sp?] Bundy

Delilia Bundy (Born About 1867), Died: 14 Feb 1955, 88yrs. Old.  Arrangements: Frazier’s Funeral Home. Interment: Lincoln Memorial Cemetery.

Ref.:  http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/cookman-institute-right-place-and-time

Information provided by Lincoln Memorial Cemetery (28 Jul 2000), 4001 Suitland Road, Suitland, MD 20746. Tel.: 301-568-8410.

Ref.:  http://www.burialplanning.com/cemeteries/lincoln-memorial-cemetery/cemetery-about.

Additional research is required to establish the validity of the above information and discover additional facts having links with the establishment and growth of the Washington Baha’i community during it’s early years of development from about 1900 to 1955.

Lincoln Memorial Cemetery
4001 Suitland Road, Suitland, MD 20746, USA

Woodlawn Cemetery

“Designated on the DC Inventory of Historic Places and the National Register of Historic Sites, Woodlawn Cemetery was established in 1895 by several individuals associated with Graceland Cemetery (founded in 1872 and located near the inter of Benning Road and H Street NE). The initial interments at Woodlawn consisted primarily of over 6,000 re-interments from Graceland made from 1895 to 1898; as at Graceland, blacks and whites were placed in adjoining graves. Subsequent interments included many prominent African-Americans, among them Blanche K. Bruce, born a slave in 1841 and elected to the U.S. Senate in 1875, and John Mercer Langston, U.S. Representative from Virginia and Dean of the Howard University Law School from 1869 to 1879. Despite attempts by loyal volunteers to maintain the cemetery, it remains severely deteriorated.”

Woodlawn Cemetery
4611 Benning Rd SE, Washington, DC 20019, USA

Baha’i Tea Event

Baha’i Tea Event

Baha’i Tea Event

A regular featured event at the Washington DC Baha’i Center was the “Baha’i Tea”, usually around 2:00 PM on a specified Sunday afternoon. Its purpose was to provide a suitable venue to receive those invited to meet the guest speaker, usually a person of note from the greater Washington community, and provide means for them to socialize with members of the faith. In this way, both the invited speaker and guests were able to learn about the Baha’i Faith.

On this occasion (ca. 1966), an early afternoon ‘Baha’i Tea’ was prepared and hosted by Baha’i community member, Tehmenia Parsons (front row, 2nd from left).

Attendees

Back Row: (l/r) Lucille Webster, unknown guest (man, glasses), Green Glen, Jr.,  William Twitty, Katherine Larson (eyes closed), unknown man (partly hidden), Grace Chavis (white hat), Rosemary K. Brown (partly hidden, glasses), Theodies Washington (partly hidden, glasses).

Middle Row: (l/r) Gypsy Goines? (white blouse), Constance and Alfred Beckley, Sarah Pereira, Farkhundih Tawfiq, Inez Cooper, Antoinette Washington (white hat), Marjorie Ingram (Inez Cooper’s daughter), Steven Sewell, and unknown person (with cake).

Front Row: (l/r) unknown guest, Tahmineh Parsons, ‘Guest of Honor’, Betty Atkins, Joy Haxon (kneeling), and Riva Morales.

Position

Tahmineh Irani Parsons – WBC, from a long line of noted Baha’i family members (the Irani’s).  Buried beside her husband at Arlington National Cemetery.  His is the only graved at ANC marked by a Baha’i symbol, a successful project undertaken by his wife, Tahmineh. 
Lucille Webster – WBC, IBP, former employee at the US Department of State.  Her signed name can be found in the Guestbook of various Baha’i communities in several countries.
Green Glen – WBC, employed by the Maryland Youth Facility (challenged youth).
William Twitty – WBC.
Katherine Larson – WBC, Ballet dancer, Washington National Ballet.
Grace L. Chavis – WBC (recent member, 1968).
Rosemary K. Brown (neé Closson), BY, WBC, Howard University student.  Later married David Closson, former Peace Corps Volunteer in Africa.  After marrying, they pioneered on the home-front to the state of New Jersey.
Theodies Washington – WBC, LSA (intermittent).
Constance and Alfred Beckley – WBC
Sarah Martin Pereira – WBC, LSA. [1] 
Farkhundih Tawfiq – WBC, BNC, IBP, Washington Baha’i Center caretaker, and served at the Baha’i National Center. [2] 
Inez Cooper – WBC, one time member of the LSA, wife of a well-respected Washington DC police detective.
Antoinette K. Washington – WBC, BY, involved in various Baha’i projects.
Marjorie Ingram – WBC (Inez Cooper’s daughter).
Steven Sewell – WBC, LSA, and imitator of the Lorton Inmate Baha’i Teaching Project, at the time (ca. 1968) known as “prison teaching”, i.e. teaching the Baha’i Faith to prison inmates. [3] Additional information can be acquired about this project from the Washington Baha’i Archives.
Guest of Honor – Name/position not known. Research required (Washington Baha’i Archives).
Betty Atkins – Member of the Baha’i community in Falls Church, Virginia.
Joy Haxon – WBC. [4] 
Riva Morales – Member of the Baha’i community in Silver Springs, Maryland.

____________________

Code

WBC – Member, Washington DC Baha’i Community
LSA – Member (past or present) of Local Spiritual Assembly, the Baha’i community’s administrative body.
BY – Baha’i Youth
BNC – Baha’i National Center
IBP – International Baha’i Pioneer

Notes

[1] Sarah Martin Pereira held several prominent Baha’i positions:  LSA member, Washington DC Baha’i community; member, National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the United States; member, the Baha’i Auxiliary Board; member, Continental Board of Counselors for North America.  She would carry out various assignments for the Universal House of Justice, one of which was as its representative to the election of the National Spiritual of the Baha’is of Haiti.  Unforeseen, was the death of Haiti’s leader, François Duvalier* (14 April 1907 – 21 April 1971).  The election of the NSA was in process as the funeral procession passed below, and security forces (possibly the infamous Tonton Macoute) arrived to investigate this Baha’i event.  Satisfied that no threat existed, they departed without incident.  Sarah Pereira was also a Professor of Romance Languages at the District of Columbia Teachers College (DCTC).  She married a Portuguese man, and the union produce a son, Carlos.  He would achieve a Phd in physics from (?), and later conducted research to verify certain theories propounded by Albert Einstein.  Sarah is a product of the well-known and regarded Martin family, educators and early Baha’is in Chicago, IL, and where several institutions of learning bare the Martin family name.  Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Baha’i Faith, placed a framed photograph of the Martin family on the wall of the Mansion at Baji as an example of a true Baha’i family.

[2] During one of my visits to Macau (ca. 1973) I met her two daughters at the engagement party for Hebert Lee (originally from Canada) and his future wife, she having served several years at the Baha’i World Centre, Haifa, Israel.

[3] The Lorton Reformatory, operated by the District of Columbia Department of Corrections, was a prison built in 1910 for the District of Columbia in an area now known as Laurel Hill, Virginia. It closed in 2001.

[4] Joy Haxon was a person blessed with deep spiritual insight.  She was also knowledgeable about forces impacting human nature.  As a child she showed promise in this area, demonstrating similar characteristics as those of her maternal grandmother who wanted to help develop joy’s potential.  However her mother intervened to negate the effort, fearing the effects it might have on her daughter’s life.

*As a medical student in the United States, François Duvalier, for a short time, resided with a Baha’i family (further research required to fix exact reference).

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