Baha'i Descriptive Historia
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Baha’i Community Membership

Baha’i Community Membership

Baha'i Community Membership c. 1966-67

Washington, DC/Maryland & Northern Virginia Suburbs

Baha’i Membership Lists

The Baha’i community membership lists shown are incomplete (1966-67).  However, researchers can use the list to gain a general understanding of locations and those listed as contacts.  The last two pages are draft updates to a final Washington D.C. Baha’i Community membership list.

Prior to the Baha’i Mass Teaching era in the United States, Baha’i communities in the Northern Virginia and Maryland suburbs were few.  Some areas had only isolated Baha’i’s, not at the level needed for functioning group classification.  The Washington D.C. Baha’i community was the anchor for area Baha’i activities and provided support to outlying locations.  Its sister community in Baltimore, Maryland also functioned in this manner. Baltimore and Washington each had a fully functioning Local Spiritual Assembly that pre-dates 1966, and each supported each other’s activities with some members traveling between the two cities by automobile and early on mostly by train. 

We can learn more about this by researching the archives of each community.  Serious researchers should request access to local archives by contacting the Baha’i administrative body of the particular community mentioned, also the National Baha’i Archives in Evanston, Illinois for additional information.  I will post additional information for these communities at a later date.

Note that they unintentionally misspell some names.

Click each image to enlarge.

Knobloch Memorial July 2000

Knobloch Memorial July 2000

Knobloch Memorial

Prospect Hill Cemetery, Washington, DC

8 July 2000

L – R. Amelia Knobloch, Alma Knobloch, Carl A. Hannen
Pauline Hannen and Joseph Hannen.

Knobolch & Hannen Story

Amalie Knobloch, her husband and daughters, Fanny, Pauline, and Alma, moved to the United States in 1859 from Germany, and eventually settled in Washington, DC.  Pauline was the first to learn of the Baha’i Faith and soon taught her sisters and mother.  They all became very active Baha’is.

“Mrs. Knobloch and her family consistently visited and hosted Americans of African descent, thus illustrating the quality of racial unity that is central to the Bahá’í teachings…it is a reminder [for us] to further explore the rare and specific guidance from ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to honor and inspire the early champions of racial unity in the Bahá’í Faith.”

Washington, DC – Early 1900s

The Knobloch Legacy.  “An eloquent testimony was written on the life of Mrs. Amalie Knobloch in the April 1910 issue of Star of the West*, a national Baha’i newsletter. It announced in three paragraphs the location of the ‘Institution of Baha’i Sunday Schools’ which Amalie’s daughter, Pauline, had introduced to North America, and the [racial] integrated Community Feast which she herself had personally labored for together with her family, considered as true pioneers of this work in North America. Finally, a visitation tablet received from ‘Abdu’l-Baha which all Baha’is who visit Washington are to read to ensure that her legacy based on her understanding [and] demonstrated efforts of the ‘Oneness of God’ and the ‘Oneness of Mankind’, and the importance of raising a family to serve the Baha’i Faith live on forever.”

The following Tablet revealed by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá is to be read when visiting the grave of Amalie Knobloch:

He is God! O, thou Pure Spirit, Amalie Knobloch! Although thou didst soar away from this terrestrial world, yet thou didst enter into the immeasurable, illumined Universe of the Almighty. While in this life thou didst hear the Divine Call, beheld the light of Truth, became alive by the Breaths of the Holy Spirit, tasted the sweetness of the Love of God, became the Maid-Servant of the Lord of Hosts and the object of the Bounties of His Highness the Desired one. Thou didst lead the erring ones into the Path of Truth and bestowed a portion of the Heavenly Food to those who are deprived. Thou didst consecrate the days of thy existence to the Service of His Highness the Clement and spent thy time in the diffusion of the Fragrances of the Paradise of Abha. There are many souls perfumed and many spirits illumined through thy services!

O, thou divine, beloved Maid-Servant! Although thou didst disappear from the mortal eyes, yet thou didst train and educate thy daughters, each of whom has arisen to serve the Kingdom like unto thee and is engaged in the guidance of the souls. In the Assembly of wisdom they are the lighted candles; they sacrifice their lives in the Path of God; they are gardening in thy orchard and irrigating thy rose-garden. Happy is thy condition, for thou art enjoying Eternal Life in the Kingdom of Everlasting Glory and hast left in this world kind and loving Remembrances.

Happy are those souls who visit thy luminous resting-place and through thy commemoration receive and acquire spiritual Powers!

Pauline Knobloch

Pauline Knobloch

Pauline Amalie Knobloch-Hannen (1874-1939). She was praised by ‘Abdu’l-Baha for her teaching efforts. Not only did she bring her 2 sisters, mother and her husband into the faith but also her relatives the Barnitz family of Washington D.C. as well; in addition, she introduced the Faith to Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope, both among the first to become Baha’i in America.

Fannie Knobloch

Fannie Knobloch

Fanny Almine Knobloch (1859-1949) helped to establish the Bahá’í Faith in South Africa. She visited the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, spent time in Cape Town, and made side trips to Mozambique and Rhodesia. She returned to the US in 1926 and then went back to Capetown in 1928 for two more years. In the 1930s she made several teaching trips in the southern and central United States.


Above photo: 6th from left, Carol Coley (blue tie); to his left, his sister, Quida Coley and their mother, Francis Coley.  Second from right: Richard Bond, husband of Barbra J. Eaton-Bond.  All members of the Washington, DC Baha’i community.  Others in the photo are identified in the ‘Judy Moe Document’ listed below.

Knobloch Memorial

On Thursday, June 29, 2000, the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’i’s of Washington, DC by email invited recipients to attend “…a unique event that will pay tribute to a distinguished Baha’i family of Washington DC, the Knobloch family.”



Date: 8 July 2000 Time: 3:30 pm
Location: Prospect Hills Cemetery, Washington, DC



Temperature: 75° Rain: 0%
Sunny: Yes Wind: 2mph

*HISTORY.  Baha’i News, Vol. 1 Chicago, (April 9, 1910) Jalal No. 2.  Jos. H. Hannen.  “The Visiting Tablet revealed by Abdul-Baha for Mrs. Amalie Knobloch has been read over her grave by a large number of the Bahais of Washington on different occasions. March 13, Mr. Roy C. Wilhelm was accompanied to the tomb by a party of the young people; March 27 Mr. and Mrs. Kinney, Dr. Fareed and Mrs. Getsinger were visitors, with the Sunday School children completing the party. The obedience of the friends to this Command to read the Visiting Tablet is notable and a great blessing attends this act.”  


Commemorative Ceremony

The early Knobloch & Hannen family members are buried in a plot at Prospect Hill Cemetery, located just north of Rhode Island Avenue and North Capitol Street in Washington, DC. It was expected that about twenty of the descendants will arrive to hold a commemorative ceremony starting at 11 AM on 8 July 2000. The Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Washington, DC sent out invitations for all to attend, and later to come for a light lunch at the Baha’i Center to meet the descendants of this outstanding family.

The Knobloch Memorial brochure was expanded to include documented references to information and events related to the remarkable service performed by the Knobloch & Hannen family members. It is intended to assist those who desire to acquire a deeper understanding of the impact and extent of services rendered by the family members to advance the Cause of Baha’u’llah. Access PDF file below.


Knobloch/Hannen Descendants

Judy Moe, a Hannen descendant, provided much of the information used to commemorate and document this event.  She and I exchanged photographs and she later compiled and arranged materials for presentation.  Find name identity and additional information contained in the two pdf files listed below.     


There is a wealth of information available from various sources about the early Baha’i teaching efforts of members of the Knobloch and Hannen families.  Unfortunately, very little information has been discovered or revealed about most of those whom they taught and much less about the efforts put forth by those new believers to expand the Faith.  However, to guide the reader in exploring possibilities we provide a few links below.  Be aware that you may possibly discover what may appear to be misinformation, conflicting details, or just plain mistakes in that being recounted.  This may be disconcerting but should be expected due to the time period in question, possible lack of quality in notetaking and diverse understandings, perspectives, and memories of those involved.  Much substantial Baha’i history will forever be lost, but conjecture must not be the medium through which these gaps are filled.  Objective, continuous and dedicated scholarship are required to research, analyze and render Baha’i history from its inception and growth and development throughout the ages.  Find additional reading below.

Find A Grave

Location of cemeteries, graves and burial plots of Knobloch & Hannen family members.

Others Attending

At the left is Anita Ioas Chapman, daughter of Hand of the Cause, Leroy Ioas and his wife Sylvia. Sylvia Ioas was a member of the International Baha’i Council, the forerunner of the Universal House of Justice.

Note:  Background information relating to those listed above will be made available at a later time.

L/R. Quida Coley (former pioneer to Paraguay), Iranian lady, Barbara J. Eaton-Bond (member of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Washington, DC), and Tehmenia Irani Parsons (her parents are buried at prospect Hill Cemetery).


Photo. Prospect Hill Cemetery (PHC Website)
Photo. Knobloch/Hannen (Internet)
Photo. Washington, DC Early 1900s (Creative Commons)
Photo. Pauline Knobloch & Husband (Baha’i Media Bank)
Photo. Fannie Knobloch (Baha’i Media Bank)
Photo. Group photos (bottom two) duplicates from: ‘Judy Moe Document’
Photo. Others by Terry Randolph (ObeisanceBaha Archives)
Judy Moe Document. Prepared by Judy Moe (Hannen descendant)

Prospect Hill Cemetery

Prospect Hill Cemetery, also known as the German Cemetery, is a historic German-American cemetery founded in 1858 and located at 2201 North Capitol Street in Washington, D.C.

+1 202-667-0676


Prospect Hill Cemetery, Washington, DC

Washington Baha'i Center

Follow Along

Read more about Baha’i teaching and community consolidation efforts and those involved.

Pioneer Training Institute 1980

Pioneer Training Institute 1980

Pioneer Training Institute, 5-8 June 1980 The Pioneer Training Institute has a long history and dates to the first one ever established in the United States, in 1965 at the National Baha'i Center in Wilmette, Illinois. They were organized to provide...

Muskegon Michigan Baha’i Temple Site

Muskegon Michigan Baha’i Temple Site

Future Mašriqu-l-‘Aḏkār A site destined for a future Mašriqu-l-‘Aḏkār (Bahá’í House of Worship) is located in the City of Muskegon, State of Michigan, the United States. Mašriqu-l-‘Aḏkār Mašriqu-l-‘Aḏkār is an Arabic phrase meaning “Dawning-place of the remembrances...

Poor Peoples Campaign

Poor Peoples Campaign

Poor Peoples Campaign Members from various Baha'i communities gather to participate in the Poor Peoples Campaign held in the Nations Capital 12 May - 24 June, 1968. 19 June 1968.  Baha'is stand ready to participate in the Poor Peoples Campaign...

Baha’i Property Isfahan Iran

Baha’i Property Isfahan Iran

Baha’i Property, Isfahan, Iran

This property has since been confiscated or destroyed

Exterior of Baha’i Property, Isfahan, Iran (December 1970). Contribute your materials.


Isfahan, the capital and major city of Eṣfahān province, is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran. It was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. This led to the Persian proverb “Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast” (Isfahan is half of the world). Situated on the north bank of the Zāyandeh River, the city is one of the most important architectural centers in the Islamic world. In 1979 it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Over the course of the city’s history, various religious minorities have flourished in Eṣfahān. A number of Armenian churches, including the Vank Cathedral (built in the mid-17th century), may be found in the city. The churches, some of which date from Ṣafavid rule, are a reflection of the Armenian community that has long inhabited Eṣfahān’s Jolfā district. Armenians were gathered there during the rule of ʿAbbās I and were encouraged to continue practicing their religion and engaging in commerce.

The city also bears significance for Baha’is: in the 1840s the Bāb, one of the three central figures of the Bahá’i faith, arrived in Eṣfahān and there composed some of his major works. A Bahá’i community flourished in the city in the late 1800s.

Bábí & Baha’i Communities

“The foundations for the conversion of the Bábís of this area to the Bahá’í Faith were laid through those Bábís who visited Bahá’u’lláh during his exile in Baghdad. The Book of Certitude (q.v.) was greeted with enthusiasm when copies of it began to arrive in Isfahan. Many of the prominent Bábís of the area became Bahá’ís, such as Mullá Zaynu’l-`Ábidín of Najafábád (known to Bahá’ís as Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín, q.v.), Mírzá Ashraf of Najafábád, Mírzá Muhammad `Ali Nahrí (see “Nahrí family”), Mírzá Haydar `Alí Ardistání, Sayyid Ismá`íl Dhabíh Zavári’í and others. A number of important figures in this area, however, became Azalís (q.v.): Mullá Rajab-`Alí Qahír (whose sister had married the Báb while he was in Isfahan), his brother Mullá `Alí Muhammad Siráj, and Mírzá Hádí Dawlatábádí. To these figures was added Mírzá Nasru’lláh Maliku’l-Mutakallimín, an important figure in the Constitutional movement. As a consequence, a number of the Bábís in the area also remained Azalís, especially in the villages of Sidih, Tár, Tarq, and Dawlatábád.”

“This area saw numerous episodes of persecution instigated by the leading `ulamá: Hájí Mullá Muhammad Báqir Isfahání (q.v.; named by Bahá’u’lláh “the Wolf”), his son Mullá Muhammad Taqí (q.v., Áqá Najafí), and Mír Muhammad Husayn Imám-Jum`ih (q.v.; named by Bahá’u’lláh Raqshá, she-serpent); and by the governor Zillu’s-Sultán (q.v.), who ruled the province from 1874 to 1907. During the time of Bahá’u’lláh, there were seven major outbursts of persecution in the Isfahan area, including the execution of several prominent Bahá’ís, including Sayyid Muhammad Hasan and Sayyid Muhammad Husayn, the King and Beloved of Martyrs (see “Nahrí family”) in 1879 and Mírzá Ashraf in 1888. In the villages around Isfahan there were also numerous episodes of persecution and some martyrdoms: in Najafábád in 1864, 1889, 1899, and 1910; in Sidih in 1890; and in Zavárih in 1926.”

“As a consequence of the persecutions, many of the Bahá’ís of Isfahan migrated to other areas. Some, like the merchant Hájí Muhammad Ridá, went to Sabzivár and then on to Ashkhabad (see “Turkmenistan”), while others moved to the Haifa-Akka area.”

“Despite the persecutions, the number of Bahá’ís in the area grew both in Isfahan itself and in villages such as Sidih where three well-known poets, Mírzá Na`ím, Nayyir, and Siná, became Bahá’ís in about 1297/1879-80. In towns such as Ardistán where there had been conversions in the Bábí period, there was continued growth with the number of Bahá’ís reaching some 300 by the time of `Abdu’l-Bahá. There was also some geographical diffusion in that the religion was introduced to some new villages. Near Ardistán, a large number from the village of Bábu’r-Ruhá became Bahá’ís after the conversion of the landowner there, Mírzá Fath-`Alí (Fath-i-A`zam). The Bahá’í Faith also spread among the nomadic tribes in this area. In particular, among the Búyir Ahmad section of the Kúh-Galú tribes there were several hundred conversions during the time of `Abdu’l-Bahá. There were also converts in Burújin in Bakhtiyárí country.”

“Surprisingly, in view of the intense persecutions of the Faith in this region, a number of prominent citizens managed to remain Bahá’ís. For example, Mírzá Asadu’lláh Khán was the finance minister of the province from about 1878 to 1908.”

“The Bahá’í community of the small town of Najafábád has been a particularly large and important one. A Bahá’í school was established at Najafábád, and when this was closed down by the government in 1934, Mr. Abu’l-Qásim Faizi (q.v.) went to the town to act as tutor to the four hundred Bahá’í children affected by the closure.”

“In 1933 Keith Ransom-Kehler (q.v.) died in Isfahan while on a tour of Iran. She was buried next to the graves of the King and Beloved of Martyrs. Shoghi Effendi referred on several occasions to these three graves and they became a site frequently visited by Bahá’ís.”

For further information on events after 1921, see “Iran“.

A Story With More Than Words

We arrived in Isfahan and made our way to the location of the Baha’i center properties that housed the activities of the local Baha’i community. It is here that schools once flourished, and religious training, community events and other exercises were held. These have now ceased to avoid exciting the local Moslem religious authorities and possibly additional attacks on the Baha’i community. While waiting for our guide we met the office attendants and tea was served.

The gentlemen seen above greeted us and explained that it would be his duty to guide us around the property, explain its history, and answer any questions we might have. He showed us the result of damages from by past atrocities and repairs made, and those most recent by local invaders. The Baha’i community in Isfahan has been under repeated attacks dating back to its inception, and prior to then those made on followers of the Bab. See references below to learn more about Babi/Baha’i history in Isfahan.

Note: This posting is incomplete as there are many more photographs to document this event. However, they along with journaled accounts are in storage and currently not available. It is my hope to expand this narrative when opportunity and time permit. It will also include information about my host, the Maboobi family in Tehran.

The Babi Movement

“Babism was a 13/19th-century messianic movement in Iran and Iraq under the overall charismatic leadership of Sayyed ʿAlī-Moḥammad Šīrāzī, the Bāb (1235/1819-1266/1850). Babism was the only significant millenarian movement in Shiʿite Islam during the 13th/19th century and is of particular interest in that, unlike other Islamic messianic movements of approximately the same period, it involved, in its later stages, a wholesale break with Islam and an attempt to establish a new religious system.”

“Although the Babi movement as such was rapidly crushed and rendered politically and

rapidly crushed and rendered politically and religiously insignificant, the impetus towards the proclamation of a post-Islamic revelation was continued in Bahaism which began as a Babi sect in competition with that of the Azalī Babism during the 1860s. The relative success of Bahaism inside Iran (where it constitutes the largest religious minority) and in numerous other countries, where it claims the status of an independent religion, gives renewed significance to its Babi origins; indeed, Babi history and doctrine live on, albeit in a much revised form, in the literature and self-image of the modern Bahais.”  Ref. BABISM. The Babi movement.

Baha'i Property in Isfahan

Slide Presentation

Baha'i Holy Places


Holy places associated with the stay of the Báb in Isfahan include the house of the Imám-Jum`ih; the palace of Manúchihr Khán at Chihil Sutún; the house of Mírzá Asadu’lláh Vazír where the remains of the Báb were kept for a short time; and the house and tombs of the King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs, together with the adjacent tomb of Ransom-Kehler.  Keith Ransom-Kehler (February 14, 1876–October 27, 1933) was an American Bahá’í and Hand of the Cause of God. She is believed to have been the Bahá’í Faith’s first American martyr.

Bibliography. History of the Bahá’í Faith in Isfahan (author unknown), photocopy of mss. in Afnán Library; Áqá Husayn `Alí Núr, memoirs written in 1346, photocopy of mss in Afnán Library, partially published as Khátirát-i-Muhájirí az Isfahán dar zamán shahádat-i-Sultánu’sh-Shuhadá va Mahbúbu’sh-Shuhadá, Mu’assisih Millí Matbu`át-i-Amrí, 128/1971; ZH 3:89-105; 6:137-300; 8a:121-174. M. Momen, “Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-53): a preliminary analysis”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 1983, 15:157-183.

The Bab

The origins of the Bahá’í Faith go back to a religious movement founded in AD 1844 by a young Iranian merchant, Sayyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (1819-1850), who took the title of the Báb (the gate). His followers were therefore called Bábís. In 1844, in Shiraz in the south of Iran, the Báb gathered around himself a group of eighteen disciples whom he named the “Letters of the Living.” Among these disciples was one woman who was given the title of Táhirih (the pure one). She was not present in Shiraz but the Báb accepted her as one of the Letters of the Living on account of a message of acceptance that she sent him. The Báb dispersed the Letters of the Living throughout Iran and surrounding countries to spread his message, while he himself set off towards the end of 1844 on the pilgrimage to Mecca.

In Mecca, the Báb announced his message, but was generally ignored. His plans for proceeding from Mecca to Karbala, a holy city in the south of Iraq, also came to nothing owing to the fierce opposition which one of his disciples had encountered there. The Báb returned to Shiraz and was detained and placed under house arrest by the governor of that city.

Despite these early setbacks, the message of the Báb spread throughout Iran. Many thousands of people became his followers including many religious scholars of Islam. The governor of Shiraz, fearing the growth of the movement, decided to arrest the Báb again in 1846. His officials carried out the arrest but the sudden appearance of cholera in the city threw everything into confusion and the Báb was allowed to leave the city. He journeyed to the city of Isfahan in central Iran. The governor of Isfahan was a Georgian Christian who had converted to Islam and risen to his present high position. He asked the leading Shi`i religious official in the city to accommodate the Báb.

Isfahan was then the leading centre of Shi`i Islam in Iran. Here the Báb wrote several of his most important works and discussed these with the religious scholars and students gathered there. His teachings convinced many including the governor of Isfahan. The latter offered to put his personal fortune at the disposal of the Báb and to arrange a personal interview with the Shah.

Reports from Isfahan and all over Iran were arriving at the capital about the new religious movement. They alarmed the Prime Minister, who sent orders to Isfahan for the arrest of the Báb. The governor of Isfahan hid the Báb for a time in one of his palaces, but in February 1847, this governor died. His successor had the Báb sent under guard towards Tehran.

The Prime Minister, whose own position was dependant on the religious influence that he wielded over the Shah, feared that the results of any meeting between the Báb and the Shah would lead to the loss of his own position. He, therefore, halted the progress of the Báb’s escort outside Tehran and diverted them to Maku in the extreme north-west of Iran. Here in a remote corner of the country and imprisoned among a hostile people, the Prime Minister hoped that the Báb would be isolated and his movement would gradually die away. The Prime Minister’s hopes were not, however, fulfilled. The Báb won over his prison warder in Maku and his teachings continued to spread through the towns and villages of Iran.

In 1848, several significant events occurred. Early in this year, the Prime Minister changed the place of imprisonment of the Báb from Maku to Chihriq in the hope of making him more isolated. Also in this year, the Báb issued the Bayán, his principal book of laws and teachings. This book made it clear that he was in fact inaugurating a new religious dispensation that abrogated the dispensation of Islam. This fact was then proclaimed in a conference of his followers held in the summer of that year in a village called Badasht on the road between Tehran and the north-east. At about the same time, the Prime Minister had the Báb brought from his imprisonment to Tabriz, the provincial capital of the north-west. There a mock trial was held before the crown-prince and an assembly of religious notables in the hope that the Báb would be humiliated. The Báb, however, conducted himself with a dignity that won him even more supporters. The trial also gave the Báb an opportunity to announce publicly his claim to be the Mahdi of Islam.

Between 1848 and 1850 there were several episodes in which the religious leaders in various localities around Iran stirred up the people against the Bábís;. When this resulted in civil unrest, the local authorities called upon the Shah’s army to attack the Bábís;s. These episodes culminated in several massacres of Bábís;s in different parts of Iran.

In the middle of the year 1850, the new Shah and his Prime Minister decided that the only way of stopping this religious movement would be to execute the founder. They therefore had the Báb brought to Tabriz again and suspended in a public square in front of a firing squad consisting of a regiment of soldiers. There then occurred what Bahá’ís consider to have been a miracle. All of the shots missed and the Báb seemed to have disappeared. He was eventually found dictating his last words to his secretary. The Báb was then brought back to the square, suspended again, and a new regiment was lined up (the first regiment having refused to carry out a further attempt). This time the shots succeeded and the Báb was killed. His body was rescued by some of his followers. After being hid in various places for fifty years, it was eventually interred in a shrine on the side of Mount Carmel in the city of Haifa. An imposing superstructure was then built over this shrine.

The persecutions of the Bábís continued over the next few years. Eventually in the summer of 1852, a small group of Bábís decided to obtain revenge on the Shah by assassinating him. Their plans were, however, poorly made and the plot was a failure. Although most of Bábís had not been involved in the plot, this event triggered an intense persecution that resulted in the execution of almost all of the remaining leading Bábís. Among those executed was Táhirih, the female member of the Letters of the Living.

Extracted from: A Short Introduction to the Bahá’í Faith.

An Endeavour That Seeks To Preserve

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Office Attendants

Office of the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Isfahan

Image of Abdu’l-Baha placed within embroidery.

Dedicated to the Twin Shining Lights (see below)


Núrayn-i-Nayyirayn (Arabic: نورين نيّرین‎, meaning “twin shining lights”) are two brothers who were followers of Bahá’u’lláh, the founder of the Bahá’í Faith, a global religion of Persian origin. The two were natives of Isfahan, and both were rich and highly endowed with trading acumen. They were beheaded in the city of Isfahan in 1879 as a result of being Bahá’ís. Numerous letters and tablets were written in their honour by Bahá’u’lláh, who gave them the titles which they are commonly known as: the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs.

Sultánu’sh–Shuhada’ (King of Martyrs)

Mahbúbu’sh–Shuhadá’ (Beloved of Martyrs)

On the right is the older brother, Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn, given the title Mahbúbu’shShuhadá’ (Beloved of Martyrs). His brother, Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, was given the title Sultánu’shShuhada’ (King of Martyrs). The latter was identified as one of the nineteen Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh.”

This dastardly act against the brothers was influenced by three persons: Mir Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum’ih of Isfahan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, another influential Muslim cleric of Isfahan; and Sultán-Mas’úd Mírzá, the son of Násiri’d-Dín Sháh, who governed Isfahan during the time.” Images below show the ornately designed home in which the two brothers lived.  For additional information click on Wikipedia

Grievous Event

A grievous event of great consequence occurred in Isfahán during the last few months of Bahá’u’lláh’s residence in the Mansion of Mazra’ih. This was the martyrdom of two distinguished followers of Bahá’u’lláh, the ‘twin shining lights’ Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan and his elder brother Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn, surnamed respectively by Bahá’u’lláh ‘Sultánu’sh-Shuhadá’ (King of the Martyrs) and ‘Mahbúbu’sh-Shuhadá’ (Beloved of the Martyrs). Reminiscent of the martyrdom of Badí,* this tragic event caused the Pen of the Most High to lament their loss for several years. In no less than one hundred Tablets He recounts their story, discloses their exalted station and praises their virtues.

In a Tablet, to one of the Afnáns, Bahá’u’lláh, in the words of Mírzá Áqá Ján His amanuensis, makes a statement that can be described only as astounding. He states that the martyrdom of these brothers made a greater impression, exerted more influence and was more heart-breaking than the Martyrdom of their Lord, the Báb, whom they served and worshipped.

The King of the Martyrs and Beloved of the Martyrs were born to a noble family in Isfahán. They were nine and ten years of age respectively when the Declaration of the Báb took place in 1844.

Their two illustrious uncles, Mírzá Hádí and Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí (the father of Munírih Khánum, the wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá) had embraced the Faith of the Báb in the early days of its Revelation. They both took part in the Conference of Badasht. But their father, Mírzá Ibráhím, was not a believer at the time; he recognized the truth of the Faith later. He was engaged in the service of Mír Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jumi’h* of Isfahán, as manager of his financial affairs. When the Báb went to that city He stayed part of the time as a guest in the home of the Imám-Jumi’h.

Because of his close association at that time with the Báb, Mírzá Ibráhím, though not a believer, entertained Him one day in his home. On that occasion the two young brothers and their uncles† attained the presence of the Báb. This meeting left an abiding impression on the two youths, who became ardent believers through the efforts of their uncles, especially Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí who later accompanied them to Baghdád where they attained the presence of Bahá’u’lláh. As a result of their meeting with Him, they became aware of His exalted Station and were filled with the spirit of faith and certitude. The splendours of the Face of their Lord brightly illumined their beings and they returned home radiant as shining lights.

In those days merchants occupied an important position in the community. The King and the Beloved of the Martyrs were held in high esteem as merchants of note by the inhabitants of Isfahán. These two brothers had established a very prosperous business there, but they were not attached to earthly possessions. Through their generous support they were able to alleviate some of the hardships which Bahá’u’lláh and His companions had to endure in the course of His successive exiles and confinements. They also spent much of their enormous wealth on the poor, and lovingly harboured the distressed and the needy at all times. For example, they provided food and other necessities for a great many starving people during a famine in Isfahán. In their dealings with people they were renowned for their trustworthiness, honesty, compassion, loving-kindness and generosity. They were shining embodiments of all Bahá’í ideals. Their love and devotion for Bahá’u’lláh knew no bounds. The praise that Bahá’u’lláh has lavishly showered upon them is ample testimony to the loftiness of their station, the nobility of their character and the purity of their souls. Reference: The King and Beloved of the Martyrs.


All photographs were taken by Terry Nelson during 1970-71.  The exception is images of the two brothers known as “Twin shining lights” from Wikipedia




History of the Bahá’í Faith in Isfahan (author unknown), photocopy of mss. in Afnán Library; Áqá Husayn `Alí Núr, memoirs written in 1346, photocopy of mss in Afnán Library, partially published as Khátirát-i-Muhájirí az Isfahán dar zamán shahádat-i-Sultánu’sh-Shuhadá va Mahbúbu’sh-Shuhadá, Mu’assisih Millí Matbu`át-i-Amrí, 128/1971; ZH 3:89-105; 6:137-300; 8a:121-174. M. Momen, “Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-53): a preliminary analysis”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 1983, 15:157-183.



From The Blog

Sharing knowledge and experiences to preserve Baha’i history.

Pioneer Training Institute 1980

Pioneer Training Institute 1980

Pioneer Training Institute, 5-8 June 1980 The Pioneer Training Institute has a long history and dates to the first one ever established in the United States, in 1965 at the National Baha'i Center in Wilmette, Illinois. They were organized to provide...

Baha’i Community Membership

Baha’i Community Membership

Baha'i Membership ListsThe Baha'i community membership lists shown are incomplete (1966-67).  However, researchers can use the list to gain a general understanding of locations and those listed as contacts.  The last two pages are draft updates to a final...

The Great Tao

The Great Tao

By Phyllis Ghim Lian Chew The Great Tao Journal of Baha'i Studies, 4.2.1991 This article compares the similarities of the spiritual insights of the Tao with that of other major religions, notably the Baha'i Faith. The author argues that there can be no understanding...

Zylpha Mapp Robinson

Zylpha Mapp Robinson

  Zilpha Mapp-Robinson   Zylpha Mapp-Robinson (r) is with Quida Coley at the 1992 Baha'i World Congress held at the Jacob-Javits Convention Center in New York City. They are both longtime Baha'i international pioneers, Zylpha for more than nine years in...

Stanwood Cobb

Stanwood Cobb

Stanwood Cobb

Stanwood Cobb investigated the Bahá’í Faith after being attracted by articles in the Boston Transcript. In 1906 during his studies at Harvard Divinity he pursued his interest at Green Acre, meeting noted Baha’is Sarah Farmer and Thornton Chase, and later joined the faith.

Stanwood Cobb was born on November 6, 1881, in Newton, Massachusetts.  He died on December 29, 1982, Chevy Chase, Maryland, and is buried at Rock Creek Cemetery in the North West section of Washington, DC.  After moving from Washington, DC he resided for many years at 19 Grafton Street, Chevy Chase, Maryland.  Dr. Cobb was recognized for his accomplishments and achievements and, as such, was accepted as a member of the Comos Club.


Dr. Stanwood Cobb achieved the presence of Abdu’l-Baha during the latter’s visit to the United States in 1912, and who predicted that Dr. Cobb would live to attain his one-hundred birthday.  Upon reaching that momentous milestone in 1981, Dr. Cobb penned and then published the following statement to commemorate the occasion:

Dr. Stanwood Cobb, his 100 Year Birthday Statement

Dr. Cobb edited two Baha’i journals: Star of the West in 1924, and World Order from 1935-39, was a founding member of the Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Washington D. C. in 1933, served on various committees, and was Chairman of the Teaching Committee in 1935.

Dr. Cobb resided within a twenty minute drive of the Washington DC Baha’i Center, and would often visit to give talks when invited.  As a previous member of the Washington Baha’i community and as a founding member of its administrative board, he was invited to give the featured presentation at the dedication ceremony of the first Baha’i community-owned center in the Nations Capital, seen above giving his presentation.  During his visits to the Baha’i Center he would be accompanied by Scott, his assistant, and an accomplished pianist who would on occasion perform musical recitals at the Baha’i Center.

Dr. Cobb was a member of the exclusive Cosmos Club, “a private social club, incorporated in Washington, D.C. in 1878 by men distinguished in science, literature and the arts”, and since “its founding…has elected as members individuals in virtually every profession that has anything to do with scholarship, creative genius or intellectual distinction”.  Dr. Cobb on several occasions was instrumental in assisting the Spiritual Assembly to acquire use of the club’s facilities to host various events for noted members of the Baha’i Faith.  Meetings were held for Hand of the Cause, William “Bill” Sears who came with his wife, Margaret, and also for Hand of the Cause, Dr. `Alí-Akbar Furútan.

Dr. Cobb loved to be around young people.  During speaking engagements and teaching activities he was always surrounded by young college students who would ‘hang’ on to his every word.  He always expressed the need for maintaining a proper diet and to engage regular exercise, these being necessary additions to one’s pursuit of intellectual growth and spiritual development.  Dr. Cobb personally practiced what he ‘preached’ concerning the need for cultivating a proper lifestyle.  He regularly performed breathing exercises, and was a prolific writer and teacher on these and many other subjects.  His books are available through libraries and publishers.  As an intellectual giant he was a major contributor to humanity’s knowledge base.  For this and his service to the Baha’i community he deserves to be ‘revisited’, to be ‘rediscovered’, in order to gain appreciation for the breath of his learning and the many contributions he made to advance human understanding.

Dr. Stanwood Cobb, Theodies Washington, Lee Trembath, Author Dhal

Scott Huff, Dr. Stanwood Cobb, Theodies Washington, Dr. William Maxwell

Top photo:  Dr. Stanwood Cobb, featured speaker at the dedication of the Washington, DC Baha’i Center in 1967.

Other Photos:  Attendees at a global economics forum sponsored by the Spiritual Assembly of Washington, DC, c. 1969.

Photographer/Terry Randolph

Baha’i Faith In Washington DC

Baha’i Faith In Washington DC

Pauline and Joseph Hennan

During the early 1900s, the Knoblochs and Hannens were instrumental in teaching the Baha’i Faith in Washington, DC. The Knobloch Family Memorial Service was held July 7, 2000 at Prospect Hills Cemetery in the Nations Capital to commemorate the family’s service and achievements to advance the faith.

Baha’i Faith Arrives

The Baha’i Faith arrived in the Nations Capital in 1898, brought there by Charlotte Dixon, a white woman, who came to teach the religion she dearly loved, and concentrated her efforts on teaching the faith to African Americans.

Knoblochs and Hannens

During the early 1900s, the Knoblochs and Hannens were instrumental in teaching the Baha’i Faith to African Americans in Washington, DC.

Louis Gregory

“I became a confirmed believer about June, 1909 and thereafter cooperated with the Hannen’s in arranging meetings and trying to give everyone the message.”

Melba Dorsey Wheatley

Melba Dorsey Wheatley

Melba D. Wheatley

Melba Dorsey Wheatley became a member of the Baha’i Faith around 1938.  She recalls that at age 10 or 11 of having a spiritual premonition of Abdu’l-Baha visiting the United States.   As an adult when told by a friend that a prominent man from the east had arrived in the United States, she went to Chicago to look for him.


Information presented about Melba Dorsey Wheatley’s was acquired through my many discussions with her from January 1992 through September 1996.  These took place during the latter years of her life in Battle Creek, Michigan, she as a long time resident and I as someone who had newly arrived.  Born Melba Dorsey in 1902, married name ‘Wheatley”, she passed away in October 1997 at age ninety-five.  She had often stated, “I don’t know why the Lord is keeping me here so long.  I’m ready to go at any time”.


Melba Dorsey recalls that “As a young child, maybe age ten or eleven, I had a spiritual premonition of Abdu’l-Baha visiting the United States”.  This experience was so profound that when she reached adulthood, and when told by a friend that a prominent man from the east had arrived in the United States, she immediately went to Chicago to find him [this was in 1912]. However, she recalls only seeing “those of oriental extraction” and now wonders if she had possibly been close to him but was unaware of this possibility at that time.

Much later when living in Baldwin, Michigan, Melba received the teachings of Baha’u’llah from Helen Z. Thompson and instantly knew that her spiritual search was over. It was then that she officially became a member of the Baha’i Faith [around 1938], but, as she related, “It had always been in my heart”.

Kellogg Company

Battle Creek is home to the Kellogg Company and the philanthropic Kellogg Foundation, both major employers in the area. The Kellogg Company host what is know locally as the “largest breakfast table in the world”, an annual event that consist of free breakfast cereal laid out on a seemingly never ending array of tables placed at downtown city-center and visited by large numbers of people from fay flung areas.

Early Baha'i Efforts (Battle Creek, Michigan)

Since the early 1900s, Battle Creek became the focus of many efforts to establish a Baha’i community there. Through the efforts of local Baha’is, and supported by several noted national Baha’i travel-teachers, the goal was finally achieved. However, the community would later suffer because it became extremely difficult to maintain the number of members required (nine) for an officially recognized local administratively governed Baha’i community. This was due to several reasons, notably, that the teaching effort could not be extended for long periods of time, the movement of some Baha’i community members to other locations, and problems associated with the lack of having acquired a deeper understanding of Baha’i teachings by some newly declared members resulting in their lack of participation in Baha’i activities.[2]

For many years since 1938 Melba Dorsey (Wheatley) was a major Baha’i influence in Battle Creek and surrounding areas. Not alone in  this personal effort, and along with other dedicated believers in the Battle Creek Baha’i community was Ruth McLaglain[3]. She is discussed on a different post.  Much later, about 1966-67, saw the arrival of Eva Bright as a home-front pioneer to Battle Creek from Washington D.C. Baha’i community[4].  She and Melba became stanch friends and their relationship remained so up until Eva’s passing [ca. 1989].




Dorsey Family

Melba Dorsey was born into a professional acrobatic and musical family, and music and entertaining became the mainstay during her early life.

Her family had their own concert group and performed extensively in Texas, and in Chicago her mother sang in opera houses. Melba’s father supported the family as an acrobat, and with various family members performing. Melba recalls that at approximately six years of age she performed acrobatics in shows with her father, and also being on the tight wire.

Melba and her sister, Thelma, together and individually composed various types of music from Negro spirituals to operas. Her brother, James, also talented, was a professor of music at Lincoln University, from where he wrote music and collaborated with his sisters.

Melba was trained at Tuskegee College and at the Chicago Music College . She also studied for a time in Washington, DC .

During her musical career, Melba was a member of the Midland Chautaqua Circuit, the Midland Jubilee Singers. She also joined the Kentucky Harmony Singers featuring Negro spirituals. But it was during her days with the Shaver Group that first took her to Canada. At that time, Shaver was the only female singing group on the road. She and her sister also had their own singing group. Melba was a member of the original Battle Creek Community Chorus.

Melba recalls that during one of her performances she met US President Calvin College, whom people referred to as “Silent Cal”.

In Her Own Words

“I sang a perfect alto, and continued as an alto singer through Sunday school, Church, and [when attending other] schools. My early piano training [was] given [to me] by music teachers that were friends of my mother”; then, “Finally I received instruction from a teacher whose lessons included teaching me how to write my own music.” Melba studied at Tuskegee University where “I sang in the choir [and after leaving that institution] I continue vocal training at the Chicago Musical College”. She then left CMC “when invited to travel with a singing group in need of a alto [singer]”.





“My first professional work, and incidentally the largest organization I was ever associated with, was The Midland Chautauqua Circuit, the pioneer of the circuit Chautauqua. The Mother Chautauqua began on Chautauqua Lake in New York, Tuesday Evening, August 4, 1874”.

“We were called ‘Troopers’ in those days and the name of the group was taken from the organizer and manager who contacted those seeking talents, or arranged their circuits. We were also known as the Jubilee Singers; the Richardson Jubilee Singers of Chicago, with whom I was associated.”

“This group as well as most all the rest consisted of five performers: Soprano, alto, tenor, base and a pianist. The company featured plantation melodies, Negro spirituals, and individual specialties: solos, piano numbers, monologues, etc.”

“Other groups I was with: The Kentucky Harmony Singers[1], Carolina Jubilee Singers, and the Lango Jubilee Singers[2]. My time of travels began in 1927.”

“Before coming to Battle Creek, when not on tour, I directed choirs, Choruses, glee clubs, etc., arranging and writing music for them, and also as a music teacher. I have given many recitals with my sister, an accomplished well known organist and pianist in Chicago.”

“In Battle Creek I sang with the first or original Battle Creek Community Chorus under direction of Mr. Eckmeyer.” At that time it was “Alfred ‘Gif’ Richards along with his wife Connie as pianist. A quintet from the chorus was composed of Mattie Willis, now deceased – Arnold Robbins, Katherine Farley-Hall, Ronald Simpson and Melba D. Wheatley. I arranged one of the songs for the quintet. The chorus practiced at the WELL Radio Station then located in the Michigan National Bank. In the early 40s I was pianist at Mt. Zion AME Church.”

I “[h]ave 6 copyright songs published and many others not yet published. Received many plaques, one from Theresa McFall of the Second Baptist Church, for writing and dedicating it to her for her choir [to] use ‘Walk In The Path Of The Lord’. Others from Eta Phi Beta Sorority for setting music to their sorority song, aware from The Morning Musical Club of Battle Creek for one of the Entrant-Sesquicentennial Songs (1981), ‘Welcome and Best Wishes Now’, [and] written in connection with Ester Sielaff (one of their members).”

“First few years after opening of The Springview Tower, where I resided, [there I] assisted with, participated [in], and gave several programs. Occasionally we would have a sing-along for the residents, and I conducted. Also I received an award in 1988 for Senior Citizen of the Year from Battle Creek N.A.N.B. & P.W., having written music for the local Chapter here in Battle Creek.

[1] Link to newspaper article: Daily-Journal World, Lawrence, Kanas, Friday, November 10, 1939. Requires payment to access.

[2] See: http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1945/05/19/page/12/article/religious-news-notes

Becoming Baha'i

In approximately1938, Melba Wheatley declared her belief in the Cause of Baha’u’llah. As a young child, maybe age ten or eleven, she had a spiritual premonition of the Master (Abdu’l-Baha) visiting the United States. This was to such an extent that she went looking to find him, but recalls seeing only those of oriental extraction. She now wonders if she had possibly been close to him, but remained unaware of this possibility at the time.

Much later when as an adult in Baldwin, Michigan, Melba received the message of Baha’u’llah from Helen Z. Thompson and instantly knew that her spiritual search was over. It was then that she officially became a member of the Baha’i Faith, but, as she related, it had always been in her heart.

Melba was a member of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of Idewild (Baldwin?), Cherry Hill area, Nirvana Township, Michigan, established on 21 April 1938.


Idewild                                                            Baldwin
Helen Zenobia Thompson                              Mr. Kelly
Ester “Sunshine” Benjamin                             Blanche Peyton-Petty
Sadie                                                               Melba Mebane Wheatley
Ruth Pollard                                                     Melba Mebane Wallace (Melba’s daughter, designated Baha’i youth)
Mr. Pollard                                                       Unknown adult member

Other well-known area Baha’i teachers were: Clara and Cora Edge (sisters). Clara sent Melba her first issue of the American Baha’i News in 1939.


Arrival in Battle Creek, Michigan

1940 – Melba Wheatley leaves Baldwin to work for WPA, and then on to Chicago. She desires to become inspired to go where Baha’u’llah leads her. She is told of possible employment opportunities in Battle Creek, Michigan but had no desire to go there. She had once sang with a singing group and performed at the Kellogg Sanatorium, the first time she had ever visited the town.

1941-42 – Moved to Battle Creek, was temporarily employed, but sought permanent career change which was not easily realized, and therefore she decided to leave. But, during February 1943 she received a call from the War Manpower Commission. She returned to Battle Creek and started her employment on 12 Feb 1943 (George Washington’s birthday).

As a Baha’i teacher, Melba realized that this was her primary goal. She sought and acquired the first known Baha’i enrollment in Battle Creek. The first Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in the 1940s. Over the years, Battle Creek obtained and lost LSAs several times but always-held group status. In her home, Melba held Baha’i children’s classes, studied and taught the Baha’i Faith. Baha’i meetings were held in various parts of the city, to include the YMCA. Many well-known Baha’is of the era participated in Baha’i activities in Battle Creek; e.g., Hand of the Cause William Sears with wife Margaret.

Melba’s friend, Ruth McLaughlin, a former member of the Battle Creek Baha’i community but had moved to Kalamazoo, Michigan, remembers well those early years. She, too, was very much a part of the area-wide effort to bring the healing message of Baha’u’llah to waiting souls.

One other Baha’i friend Melba relied on was Eva Bright, originally from Washington, DC, relocated as a Baha’i home-front pioneer to Battle Creek, Michigan. I (Terry Randolph) was at the meeting at the Baha’i Center in Washington, DC when she made the announcement. We all asked, “Exactly where is Battle Creek?” We organized a send-off party, and Eva was on her way. I did not realize then that years later I was destined to play a role in that same community, but going there by a much different ‘path’; and when arriving in Battle Creek on 21 December 1991 I had completely forgotten that Eva had pioneered there. I would later learn that is was in Battle Creek that she had transitioned to the next world.

Melba and Eva became very close friends. Bound by love for the Faith, they traveled together, taught the Faith together, served the Battle Creek Baha’i Community together, and prayed together up until the time Eva passed away in 1987. Melba related how devastated she was in losing such a trusted friend and soul mate.


1954 – Melba wrote a song that became the national anthem for the Eta Phi Beta Society.

11 Jan 1968 – Newspaper article: “Mrs. Wheatley to conclude 25 year career at the Michigan Employment Security Commission”. A testimonial dinner was given in her honor.

28 Apr 1983 – Second Baptist Senior Choir in its Second Annual Panorama of Gospel Stars featured the works of Melba Wheatley.

27 Mar 1984 – Melba wrote the music and played the piano at a fashion show sponsored by the EPSS, organized to demonstrate how old clothes can be recycled for use.

19 May 1988 – The Battle Creek Club of the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs honored her at the Sojourner Truth Awards Luncheon.

Melba states that there were “Many, many more articles over the years for which I do not have dates”, but include the following:

17 Feb 1991 – Profiles in Black History

07 Feb 1993

14 Feb 1994

22 Feb 1994

Melba credits her spiritually enriched life to “The love of God first, then the love of life second, the love of people, and the appreciation for all God has given me”.

“My Motto: Do the best I can each day and always help lighten someone else’s burden.”

Guidance (Shoghi Effendi)

The letter, dated 19 Mar 1944, was written on behalf of the Guardian in response to letter we presume he received from the Baha’is in Baldwin, Michigan.  The Guardian’s response encourages their teaching efforts, especially among and by the “negro believers”, and also mentions an enclosed letter for ‘Mrs Thompson”.






Letter From The Guardian

Battle Creek Baha’i Faith Guestbook

The guestbook was not transcribed due to the large amount of work involved and the amount of time required to complete the project.  However, if someone among you would like to volunteer to undertake this task it would be greatly appreciated.  It can be done either in MS Word or Excel, and if Excel is used it would allow for statistical analysis of people and dates.  In any event, this will allow me to extract and ‘Tag’ each name for optimized search.


[1] Melba Wheatley seen at her birthday party, celebrating 93 years and counting.  She holds a photo of Abdu’l-Baha that was taken during his visit to the United States in 1912.  Venue:  57 Chestnut Street, Battle Creek, Michigan.
[2] Early Baha’i teachers
[3]Ruth McLaughlin (MacLaughlin?)
[4] Coincidently, I was a member of the Washington, DC Baha’i community and present during Feast at the Baha’i Center when Eva Bright announced she would soon depart as a home-front pioneer to Battle Creek, Michigan.  This took the community by surprise primarily because she had given us no clue of her desire to heed the call of the NSA for more pioneers, home-front and international, to help fulfill these respective goals.



For Battle Creek, Michigan to be your pioneering post means remaining steadfast in your commitment to serve the faith long-term in a largely unreceptive and therefore unaccepting environment. Over the years Baha’i travel teachers and home-front pioneers have acknowledge this fact from self-experience; and that includes Melba Wheatley and Ruth MacLauquin, both longtime Battle Creek residents, their supporters, and others who arrived to participate in Baha’i activities.

It proved extremely difficult to achieve Local Spiritual Assembly status in Battle Creek (first established in 1948), once achieved was difficult to maintain, and was more often recognized as having a Baha’i group though at times this questionable. The local environment is not openly hostile, not to the Baha’i Faith or to newly arrived residents, but perhaps ‘outward indifference’ may be an appropriate term combined with intense expectation; i.e., projecting a strong ‘wait and see’ attitude to assess if someone can, how they will relate, or will they be able to fit into the community. This is not unusual, in and of itself, as this can be expect when moving into a new community. However, the Battle Creek environment has a unique inherent character that operates within parameters not easily defined. The community even has a history of ejecting those determined, by its standards, ‘not desirable’.

Given this background and perspective, the accomplishments of Melba Wheatley are astounding. During our discussions she readily acknowledged the negative attitudes that were aligned against her when she arrived as a home-front pioneer, the difficulties of serving the Cause, and of the struggles to maintain an active and viable Baha’i community. Melba overcame these odds by, in her words, “Having love in my heart and faith in Baha’u’llah”.

Additional research is required to reveal more about Melba Wheatley, her life, challenges she faced as a Baha’i in Battle Creek, and means whereby she achieved acceptance and distinction in that city. Work will continue once I have acquired more archived material from my storage unit. Information will also be available on the following individuals: Ruth McLaughlin, Eva Bright, Yvonne Merritte (Eva’s sister), and others who were instrumental to furthering Baha’i work in Battle Creek, and other places in Michigan.

All mistakes are entirely mine.  Corrections will be made via updates.

Last Residence: Bynum Drive, Battle Creek, Michigan

Residence of Melba Wheatley

Cemetery:  Battle Creek Memorial Park Association
Lot/Section:  148.  Space/Level:  11.  Date of Burial:  7 Oct 1997

Battle Creek Memorial Park Association

Melba Wheatley Journals

Melba Wheatley was always a ‘high energy’ person (confirmed by people who new her well) and she related to me that her energy level was so intense that “When I had an idea considered too important to forget I would quickly ‘jot’ [write] it down, and on any scrap of paper readily available”. This is important because it explains that over many years this habit resulted in an abundant accumulation of notes now not easy to decipher. I would often visit her and we would sit together, go through piles of notes she had considered worth keeping, and I would attempt to stimulate her memory to recall the context in which certain information, activity, or an event occurred.

Digital/PDF Format

Digitally scanned information Melba Wheatley had accumulated over many years is now made available in a series of ‘Journal’ files in PDF format. Information contained therein may not make sense to many people. However, for knowledgeable researchers and those seeking additional background on the early development of the Baha’i Faith in the United States the Wheatley Journals may provide a wealth of information. The Journals generally covers a period from 1938-1978.

The Melba Wheatley Collection

Through the assistance of Dr. Roger M. Dhal, Chief Archivist, US National Baha’i Archives, ‘The Melba Wheatley Collection’ was established. The main reason this was done is to ensure that important historical information is preserved because once lost may prove difficult to recover, and once destroyed is gone forever.

Base Resource

Another very important fact is that information provided contributes to a much needed base-resource, a resource priority that identifies, expands, broadens, highlights, and clarifies the active participation of lesser-known members of the Baha’i Faith; i.e., those ground troops, those front-line warriors at the community level upon whose shoulders the burden for expansion and consolidation is borne.

Transcribed Material

Journals and Notes are not transcribed. The reason being that Melba, then age 92, had difficulty capturing detail of past events and activities she had previously noted and/or written about.  Still mentally sharp, however during our discussions I found it less taxing for her if we focused on broad issues and occurrences within a particular context.  Using this approach her concentration was much improved and a greater degree of clarity realized.


Knowledgeable researchers may well recognize names of well-known Baha’is, travel teachers and others of note, dates of events and activities, and other information related to the spreading, growth and development of the Baha’i Faith during its formative years in the United States (1912-1965).


The Wheately Journals (below) have some chronological overlap due primarily to information not being written according to the time an event may have occurred, but primarily when the writer had ideas, projected memories, and engaged plans and activities.

Page Alignment

Due to the condition of some source material normal preparations made for scanning could not be completed. Also, in some cases you will need to align pages for proper viewing by using the ‘clockwise/counterclockwise’ feature available in Adobe Reader.

Letter date Sun, 8/6/78 was copied 4/13/93 to be sent to Archives.  Unsigned and is not know to whom it is addressed, but presumably it was meant for Melba Wheatley.


06 M Wheatley Notes-B

Formation of Groups and LSA’s (1941-1976) and mentions the cities of Baldwin and Battle Creek in the state of Michigan.  Provides information on the formation of the 1st LSA in Battle Creek, Michigan, and provides a list of visitors that include names of many well known believers.


1940 Ridvan (M Wheatley Journal)

First Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Battle Creek, Michigan (1945)


M Wheatley-1st LSA of BC 1945

April 21, 1938, first LSA former in Idlewild, Nirvana Township, Michigan.  Also list Baha’i status for Baldwin and Grand Rapids, visiting Baha’i speaker and travel teacher, Anna Romer, Baha’i youth, and other information.


M Wheatley-LSA Baldwin 1938-1941

In 1941 Melba Wheatley arrives in Battle Creak, Michigan as a Baha’i home-front pioneer.


M Wheatley Notes

Melba Wheatley’s employment timeline (1940-1943).


M Wheatley Job Notes 1940-43

Very interesting document that recounts Baha’i activities in Battle Creek, Michigan.  It provides names of many Baha’is who assisted the teaching effort in that city.


M Wheatley Notes 19 Jun 1977

Evidently Melba Wheatley visited Laura Rommey Davis in Toronto, Canada in 1978.  However, information provided was taken from a she letter perhaps she later receive from Laura R. Davis.  It also recounts the then prevailing ‘pilgrim note’ (or old wives tale, depending on one’s point of view) about world destruction and the building of the ‘New World Order’.


M Wheatley Notes (Laura Rommey Davis)

Early Baha’i visitors to Battle Creek, Michigan


Earily Visitors-Battle Creek

First Meeting

I first met Melba Wheatley in January 1992.  I had recently returned to the United States after eleven years having been a Baha’i pioneer to Germany and then to South Korea.  I arrived on 21 December 1991 to undertake a newly assigned position within the US Department of Defense.  At that time Battle Creek had long since lost its Local Spiritual Assembly (LSA) status.  This was due primarily to failure to maintain a viable membership.  Some members reached advance age, some were deceased, and others (including Baha’i youth) had relocated.  In fact, during my discussions with Melba Wheatley she revealed just how difficulty it had been over the years to sustaining the teaching effort and also to maintain LSA status.  Battle Creek had frequently ‘bounced’ between being a community of nine-plus members, required for official LSA status, and simply designated as a ‘Baha’i Group’ where a few members resided.

Historical Perspective

The above must be placed in historical perspective because mandated requirements by the National Spiritual Assembly for official recognition of regional, local, group, and LSA status changed several times since 1938 when Melba Wheatley declared her faith; due in part to demographic issues related to the spread, growth and development of the Baha’i Faith throughout the United States.  To some extent, similar problems are expected, and continue to experienced in present-day Baha’i membership environments.  Research of Baha’i demographics and comparative NSA guidance undoubtedly will be a topic of great interest for future historians, both those having a Baha’i background and others with expressed interest in the Baha’i Faith.

Melba Wheatley and Terry Randolph, discussing the history of the Baha’i Faith in Michigan and in Canada.

Wheatley Musical Career
Background information pertaining to Melba Wheatley’s music education, training, career, and activities.



Melba Wheatley’s Musical Career

Chautauqua Circuit:
This is an example of music composed by Melba Wheatley.  There are or were others but their condition remains unknown.

Tap The Source

Melba Wheatley Birthday Party

The event to honor Melba Wheatley’s ninety-second birthday was organized by Terry Randolph. The venue was  57 Chestnut Street, Battle Creek, Michigan. Invited guest were noted persons from the Battle Creek community who were supportive of and long familiar with Melba Wheatley community activities, Baha’is from various surrounding communities, and other well-wishers. Congratulations were received from various Baha’i Institutions and from family members, religious faiths, and local leaders.

Birthday Program


Baha’i Prayer

~ Steadfastness


~ The Song of the Reeds ~ Rumi (by Carol Stein)
~ A Poet’s Voice ~ Khalil Gibran (by Carol Stein)
~ On Virtue ~ Phyllis Wheatley (by Ruth McLaughlin)

Musical Selections

By Karen Lucatellie – Pianist (12 year old Baha’i youth )
~ Mozart
~ Mendelssohn Song Without Words


“With true vision, trust in God and unwavering courage, Melba has met and conquered some of life’s difficult challenges. With moral courage she has withstood the test of time in the face of adversity in order to faithfully deliver the Message of Baha’u’llah, to which she has committed her life.”

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